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Thinking on the Systematic Development of Natural Education of China's National Parks
Wei Dongying, Zhang Xianqing, Chen Junzhi, Wang Shu, Wang Baiyuan
2022, 2(2): 1-9.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2022.05.07.0001
Abstract(13) PDF(5)
The construction and development of national parks in China has set higher requirements for regulating nature education system in national parks. Currently, the natural education in national parks in China is in the beginning stage, and lack of integrated planning, unified standard and sound system, while the demand for nature eduction in national parks is growing. This paper reviews the connotations of nature education and its system, and analyzes the current state of nature education in national parks in China and in other countries as well as the necessity for the national parks based nature education standard development. In view of the current state of national parks in China, the paper proposes a framework of the standards for the nature education in national parks, including the planning and management, ecological experience, infrastructures, personnel, media, educational content and projects, educational activities design, systematic evaluation, etc.
Action Strategies of Nature Education Organization for Legitimacy Acquisition: An Analysis of British Forest Schools
Huang Yu, Xie Yanni
2022, 2(2): 10-20.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2022.04.04.0001
Abstract(10) PDF(2)
Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), including nature education organizations (NEOs), are an important part of the national environmental governance system, but whether they can exert the full governance ability and efficiency will depend on its legitimacy recognition. From the perspective of legitimacy theory, NEOs can adopt three strategies (adaptive strategy, selective strategy and manipulative strategy) to obtain pragmatic legitimacy, moral legitimacy and cognitive legitimacy. This paper takes British forest schools to analyze the NEOs' strategies of legitimacy acquisition using the methods of document analysis and interviews. The study illustrates that the British forest schools have mainly adopted the action strategies such as expanding the community of interests to obtain effective legitimacy, satisfying the social expectation to obtain moral legitimacy, and improving the professional level to obtain cognitive legitimacy, thus establishing its own legitimacy status for rapid development. Their experience could provide valuable lessons for various nature education organizations and even educational social organizations in China to develop their development strategies.
The Enlightenment of Pro-nature Education Concept on the Organization of Children's Outdoor Activities: Based on the Thought on Nature-Deficit Disorder
Wang Xiyue
2022, 2(2): 21-26.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2022.03.26.0001
Abstract(7) PDF(2)
Nature-deficit disorder has become a new social phenomenon that hinders the healthy growth of children. The fundamental reason behind the disorder is that children lack of opportunities or sufficient time to take outdoor activities. According to relevant surveys, children who have been long disconnected from nature will develop physical and mental illnesses and even abnormal behaviors. The paper elaborates on the concept and significance of pro-nature education, analyzes the main manifestations and consequences of children's nature deficit disorder in China, and proposes the enlightenment of pro-nature education concept on children's participation in outdoor activities.In order to ensure the physical and mental health of children, families, kindergartens and communities should implement quality outdoor activities for children. Guided by the pro-nature education concept, parents should establish a science-based education concept and encourage children to actively participate in outdoor activities; kindergartens should set up a new training model and develop pro-nature education curriculum; and communities should collaborate to create a knowledge environment and practice high-quality pro-nature educational activities. This research would provide references for kindergarten, teachers, parents and social education workers in terms of the methodology of pro-nature education so that they can use the scientific pro-nature education methods to remedy the nature deficit state of children, and make children capable to touch, smell and feel the natural environment for physical relaxation and mental nourishment. As a result, the connection with nature will reduce children's incidence rate of physical, mental, and spiritual disease, and further cultivate children's concept of ecological civilization.
Forestry Rural Revitalization: Effects and Countermeasures
Zhao Rong, Wang Tong
2022, 2(2): 27-32.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2022.04.15.0001
Abstract(4) PDF(3)
Forest lands are largely distributed in rural areas of China. Forestry is not only the main contributor to ecological civilization development in rural areas, but also an important way to promote rural economic development and increase farmers' incomes. Nevertheless, forestry sector's role in rural revitalization has not been fully played in practice. This paper summarizes the effects of forestry sector in promoting rural revitalization, and analyzes the problems. It argues that insufficient understanding of the role of forestry results in lack of internal momentum for development, narrowed path for the forestry sector to promote rural revitalization leads to the homogenization trend, inadequate promoting effects of ecological programs makes the valuation of ecological products difficult, low modernization of rural forestry undermines the value-addition potentials, and insufficient number of grassroot staff hinders the efficient governance improvement process. This paper puts forward countermeasures and suggestions on how to make forestry play a better role in promoting rural revitalization and development, including:1) Increasing the dissemination to provide the momentum for development; 2) Improving the top-level design for playing a better role of policy; 3) Taking the path of differential green development in line with local condition and resources; 4) Giving play to the radiating role of ecological programs to promote the realization of ecological product value; 5) Improving the development of modern forestry industry to facilitate the industrial integration; and 6) Strengthening grassroot forestry management to enhance the effective rural governance.
Forestry Carbon Sequestration Transaction in China: Current Situation, Problems and Policy Suggestions
Xie Hesheng, He Yating, He Youjun
2021, 1(3): 1-9.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.09.09.0001
[Abstract](485) [PDF 1475KB](62)
Carbon market mechanism is a critical policy tool to deal with climate change. In the past period of China's carbon market practice, there has been 9 types of mechanisms in the international and domestic markets of forestry carbon sequestration projects, including Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) and Golden Standard (GS) internationally, and in domestic market, including Chinese Certified Emission Reduction (CCER), China Green Carbon Foundation (CGCF), Beijing Certified Emission Reductions (BCER), Guangdong Pu Hui Certified Emission Reductions (PHCER), Fujian Forestry Carbon Emission Reductions (FFCER) and Poverty Alleviation Project of Carbon Sequestration of Single Tree in Guizhou Province. These projects have played an important role of forestry in coping with climate change, enriching carbon market transaction products, reducing emission reduction costs of emission enterprises, mobilizing the awareness and actions of social forces to participate in dealing with climate change, promoting the employment, income increasing and poverty alleviation for forest farmers, expanding the ways and forms of forestry ecological compensation, and realizing the value transformation of carbon sink ecological products. However, there are still some problems, such as imperfect policy system and management mechanism, with not explicit enough forms of project property rights, complex project development process, limited way of carbon sequestration transaction, and unclear understanding of forest carbon sequestration transaction and high transaction cost and risk as well. In view of these problems, the paper puts forward some countermeasures for policy recommendation, such as improving the transaction system and voluntary emission reduction management mechanism, clarifying the property rights of carbon sequestration, simplifying the filing procedures for forestry carbon sequestration development, establishing diversified compensation and fund raising system for carbon sequestration trading in forest and grassland fields, strengthening training and publicity for carbon sequestration trading, innovating the mechanism to reduce the transaction cost and orderly expanding the market demand for forestry carbon sequestration.
The Situations, Main Tasks and Countermeasures of China's Scientific and Technological Work on Forestry and Grasslands in the New Stage
Hao Yujun
2021, 1(1): 1-7.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.03.30.0001
[Abstract](442) [PDF 970KB](52)
With the rapid development of forestry and grassland in China, the increase of "green quantity" has attracted worldwide attention. Meanwhile, it also has the deficiency of extensive development and low quality. If we do not improve the level of scientific and technological innovation, it will result in the "abnormal development" which brings about more quality problems with faster construction, thereby leading to serious risks. This paper analyzed the situation and the main tasks of China's scientific and technological work on forestry and grassland in the new stage, put forward the plans and countermeasures of the scientific and technological work on forestry and grassland, and pointed out the key research directions that should be focused on at present.
Comparative Analysis of International Development Program Evaluation and Its Implications for APFNet
Huang Kebiao, Lu De, Pang Yong, Long Chao
2021, 1(4): 55-65.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.12.20.0005
[Abstract](443) [PDF 1737KB](35)
APFNet is one of the most active and influential forest-related international organizations in the Asia Pacific region. Improving its evaluation system is one of the priorities of APENet. On the basis of summarizing the main theoretical framework and approaches of international development program evaluation, this paper analyzes and compares the characteristics of the evaluation management structure, evaluation policy and practice of seven representative international organizations and development aid agencies, as well as the similarities and differences of those evaluation systems. The results reveal that the characteristics of each organization's evaluation system are closely related to the nature, management structure, project and activity type, scale and other factors. Based on the successful experience and practice of evaluation management of mature international organizations, combined with the current situation and problems of evaluation practice within APFNet, this paper puts forward some thoughts and suggestions on improving APFNet's evaluation system.
Reflections on the Protection and Rehabilitation of Forest Ecosystem in China
Wei Xiaoxia
2021, 1(1): 28-33.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.03.05.0002
[Abstract](325) [PDF 923KB](46)
Aiming at the present situation of forest ecosystem in China, this paper analyzed the main problems confronted by forest ecosystem in our country, put forward the major objectives and indicators of protection and rehabilitation of forest ecosystem, and discussed the main methods and approaches of protecting and rehabilitating forest ecosystem in the future, in order to provide references for the protection and rehabilitation of different types of forest ecosystems.
High-quality Development Strategy for Conversion of Farmland to Forests and Grasslands
Li Shidong
2021, 1(1): 8-19.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.03.06.0001
[Abstract](283) [PDF 1005KB](39)
Turning marginal farmland to forests and grasslands is a famous ecological project in the world and a vivid practice of "two mountains theory". Based on the analysis of the new situation of conversion of farmland to forest and grassland, this paper systematically elaborated the concept of high-quality development of conversion of farmland to forest and grassland, expounded the reason and the way to promote high-quality development of conversion of farmland to forest and grassland, and proposed the basic ideas, development goal, core content and policy countermeasures of the high-quality development.
Evolution and International Comparison of China's Forestry Management System Since 1949
Zhang Xufeng, Meng Gui, Wu Shuirong, Yu Yangting, Zhu Anming
2021, 1(1): 55-62.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.01.31.0001
[Abstract](345) [PDF 1187KB](42)
Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, China has made great achievements in the development of forestry, in which forestry management and governance systems have been playing an important role. In order to fully reveal the development and evolution of China's forestry management system since 1949, this paper analyzed China's national forestry management departments and their changes, the vertical system of national forestry management, and the political dimension of the chief executive of national forestry departments. In addition, the paper made a brief comparison with the forestry management systems of the United States and Germany, in order to seek consensus and provide a useful reference for the modernization of forestry management system. The study shows that the national forestry management departments of China have changed several times in the past 70 years with frequent changes in the early period and gradually being stable in the later period. The process of its change is basically in line with the process of China's social and economic system reform, the function of macro-control is increasingly prominent, and the direct market intervention is gradually weakened. The core responsibilities have gradually shifted from economic production to ecological construction, from a single forest ecosystem to "three ecosystems and one biodiversity". It mainly manages forestry affairs "independently", but in recent years it has been integrated into the overall management system of natural resources. The forestry management structure in China maintains the combination of vertical and horizontal administration, but it has changed from the vertical one as the major to the horizontal one as the major. The vertical system is basically stable with the continuous extension of the national administrative divisions from the central government to the local and grassroots level. The policy transmission mechanism from the top to the bottom is very mature and taking a dominant position. At the same time, the feedback mechanism from bottom to top and the suggestion mechanism from outside to inside are gradually developed. The political dimension of the chief executive is relatively stable, which ensures the relative importance of forestry in national macro decision-making to a certain extent. In addition, the comparison with the international forestry management system shows that in the current global context of sustainable development, forest resource management tends to be integrated into the natural resources management or the ecological management. This study can provide a useful reference for the modernization of China's forestry management system.
Recent Situation and Enlightenment of Grassland Carbon Sink in Some Developed Countries
Li Xiang, Zhang Huibin, Peng Wei, Sun Yingzhe, Wang Jia
2021, 1(1): 91-96.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.03.05.0001
[Abstract](337) [PDF 967KB](57)
In September and December 2020, General Secretary Xi Jinping made an important declaration on China's response to climate change, put forward clear requirements for China's forest and grass to deal with climate change, and created a good opportunity to promote forest and grass carbon sink at the United Nations General Assembly and the Climate Ambition Summit. Compared with forest carbon sink, grassland carbon sink (GCS) has not been paid attention to and fully studied, while the data show that grassland carbon sink has great potential. The United States of America, the European Union, Australia, Japan and some other countries have carried on the deep explorations of the GCS from the basic research, the methodology system, the carbon sink project pilot, the policy consummation and so on, and have accumulated certain experiences. The potential of GCS in China is huge and has the basic conditions for further development. Bringing GCS into the carbon market can help grassland ecological construction and the realization of ecological product value. To this end, China should fully learn from the beneficial experiences of foreign countries, further strengthen GCS research, improve the basic preparations for GCS laws, regulations, standards, monitoring and certification systems, methodologies and so on, and initiate GCS trading pilots in Inner Mongolia and other places. On the basis of pilot projects, China should gradually promote the inclusion of GCS in the carbon market, meanwhile, continuously innovate and perfect the policies in terms of GCS research, basic preparations and pilot exploration, further demonstrate the determination and actions in addressing climate change, and set a model for the world.
Reflection on the Development of Creative Forestry Under the Background of Rural Revitalization
Chang Song, Shi Yan, Ying Li, Yang Suli, Zhang Ke
2021, 1(2): 1-8.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.04.08.0003
[Abstract](275) [PDF 1000KB](59)
Creative forestry in China is still in the initial stage in spontaneous growth, urgently calling for the government response to rural revitalization strategy, to promote adjustments on measures according to local conditions and to provide the directional guidance around the forestry resources. This paper focuses on the concept of creative forestry, analyzes the development opportunities and typical modes of creative forestry from the perspective of rural revitalization, interprets the connotation of creative forestry under the new situation, and puts forward some suggestions on strengthening top-level design and policy support, putting more efforts on brand building, giving full play to the role of leading enterprises and solving the bottleneck of the lack of skilled talents, so as to further promote the development of creative forestry.
Thoughts and Suggestions on Desertification Combating in the Sandy District of Northern China
Li Bing, Zhang Yuqing, Zhang Zhitao, Yu Tao, Ding Guodong, Qin Shugao, Zhao Yuanyuan, Gao Guanglei, Lai Zongrui
2021, 1(1): 20-27.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.03.09.0001
[Abstract](257) [PDF 1517KB](36)
China has been recognized as one of the countries that suffer most from desertification in the world. After decades of unremitting efforts, China has made remarkable achievements in desertification combating, and won wide acclaim from the international community. In the new historical period, China's desertification combating is still facing severe challenges. There are important issues to be addressed such as how to determine the reasonable scale of ecological construction under the constraints of resource carrying capacity, protect and upgrade the existing sand-fixing vegetation, restore and reestablish ecosystem in desert regions, scientifically evaluate the service function of desert ecosystem, handle the contradiction between resource utilization and ecological protection, develop the economy and promote the sustainable development in desert regions. On the basis of extensive investigation and in-depth analysis of the key desertification provinces in northern China, this paper summarized the achievements of China in desertification combating, and put forward some misunderstandings and problems that need to be paid attention to in desertification combating at present, and put forward concrete suggestions on the general principles of desertification combating, sustainable management of land, evaluation of governance effectiveness, governance models and measures, development of sand industry, scientific research and international cooperation in China in the future.
Ecological Forest Ranger Policy in Yunnan Province and Its Implification
Han Feng, Gao Yue, Zhao Rong, Dai Shuanyou
2021, 1(1): 70-75.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.03.11.0001
[Abstract](243) [PDF 956KB](24)
Taking Yunnan Province as an example, this paper summarized the current ecological forest ranger policy, and put forward some targeted policy suggestions based on the problems existing in the process of policy implementation. In the course of carrying out the ecological forest ranger policy in Yunnan Province, through standardizing the selection and recruitment process, integrating and increasing the investment of funds, perfecting the management system, strengthening the management and supervision, the dual improvement of capacity to protect forest resources and rural residents' income in Yunnan Province has been realized, border land security has been consolidated and the system of forest management and protection has been optimized. However, some problems also emerge, such as insufficient coordination between the ecological forest ranger policy and relocation policy for poverty alleviation, deviations in the implementation of policies in some regions, inadequate performance of some ecological forest rangers, the construction of the forest management and protection system to be refined, and legal disputes in the labor agreement of ecological forest rangers. Therefore, the paper put forward the targeted proposals, including exploring the establishment of a vacating mechanism of ecological forest rangers in a centralized resettlement site, strengthening the daily management of relocated ecological forest rangers, constantly improving the standardized management capabilities of basic units, and promoting the refined management of various ecological management and protection personnel, strengthening publicity and training continuously.